Management of blood clots or thrombosis related to vascular interventions
Normally blood constantly flows smoothly through blood vessels. However, thrombosis, which is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, disturbs and obstructs the efficient flow of blood. Thrombosis can have serious health consequences and even cause death.
Current antithrombotic therapies can be grouped into one of two classes: 1) Antiplatelet drugs to prevent blood clots developing in arteries; and 2) Anticoagulant drugs to prevent blood clots developing in veins or those caused by heart arrhythmia, such as atrial fibrillation. In addition, there are fibrinolytic therapies which assist in dissolving the clots.
Under normal conditions, specific activation, adhesion and aggregation of platelets and subsequent coagulation activity ensue to heal a vascular injury. When a clot or thrombus forms during vascular intervention related injury, the above mechanisms are exaggerated.
Subsequently, the activation of both platelets and coagulation cascade leads to the deposition and maturation of fibrin to stabilize the clot. As a thrombus consists of platelets and fibrin, the optimum antithrombotic therapy should be directed towards both.