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Thrombosis refers to formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel. Blood clots in arteries obstruct the blood flow to tissues, depriving the delivery of oxygen, which results in tissue death. In veins thrombosis impairs blood circulation and may dislodge to arteries.

Thrombosis is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity. Worldwide, one in four people die from causes related to thrombosis. Thrombosis is the underlying cause among others in stroke, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Thrombosis is caused by abnormalities in one or more of the following: 1) blood flow, e.g. due to blockage or narrowing of blood vessels, 2) vascular wall, e.g. due to vascular injury, and 3) blood constituents, e.g. due to platelet and coagulation disorders.

The goal of thrombosis therapy is to restore and maintain the normal blood flow and support body’s own system to dissolve the clot and prevent re-occlusion. This may require a surgical or catheter-based intervention to remove the blood clot and/or widen the narrowed or obstructed blood vessels.

Vascular interventions and surgery, however, may cause complications by disrupting the vascular endothelium, the inner lining of vessel wall. One of the major complications is thrombosis. Vascular interventions and surgery may trigger both acute clot formation and vascular wall thickening, leading to narrowed blood vessels and eventually to re-thrombosis or vascular obstruction.

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